History of the city of Krushevo
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A lot of authors writing on Krushevo thought that Krushevo was a new settlement which was established in the 18th century, by settlement of Vlachs cattle breeders at this area. However it has been proved that Krushevo was a much more older settlement. The latest avalable documents state that Krushevo was mentioned for the first time in 1767 as a mezra (place with no population which has sometimes been inhabited and later on migrated or has never been inhabited and should have been given under possession of a landowner in order to inhabit it) of the landowner Husein-Bey together with Prilep and other villages. There is other Turkish and non-Turkish data which states that Krushevo existed as a settlement long before the 18th century. It seems that the first inhabitants of Krushevo were Macedonians who gave the name of the settlement.
At first, Krushevo was a little cattle breeding settlement and its quick growth is connected with the settlement of Vlachs in the 18th century and numerous Macedonian population afterwards. The biggest number of Vlachs came from Moskopole and other regions, runing away from the oppression, and Macedonians from the Debar region and other places in Western Macedonia also runing away from the Moslem violance and looking better existence. There were skilled merchants among the newcommers in Krushevo (especially the Vlachs), graftsmen, cattle breeders, tenants who gave trade, craftsmen and cattle breeding character to the town.
Krushevo and the Krushevo region came into the phase of organized revolutionary battle having behind it a farly rich tradition of armed resistence against the long centuries-lasting oppressor.
The spirit of freedom of the Krushevo citizens, found a concret expression in the numerous participation of fighters of this region in the liberation struggles of the neighbouring peoples - Serbian, Greek and Bulgarian.
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A certain organized form of resistence in the Krushevo region and other parts in Western Macedoniaexisted after the Eastern Crisis in 1878-1881.
Krushevo, because of its revolutionary traditions was one of those Macedonians towns in which the revolutionary idea could have been proclaimed faster and easier. The first revolutionary core in the town was formed in 1895 by persons who belonged to the circle of rich families.
In 1900/1901 in Krushevo and outside of it, in Bitola Revolutionary district, more Macedonian socialists were included who, with their ideology for a human life and mutual understanding of peoples, made a considerable influence over the ideological determination of the revolutionary organization.
1903 was year of temptations and bloody strugles. The leader of the Organization in the Krushevo Region at that period, was Nikola Karev, whose name will be connected with all those events which will make Krushevo a simbol of the Macedonian strugle for freedom. Throught at the village of Smilevo, a disicion was made for the uprising, the Krushevo leaders decided to liberate their town. A special and detailed plan was made for this purpose. A few uprising detachments attacked Krushevo and after a long fight with the organs of authority and sixty uprisers, in the night of August 2nd and 3rd, 1903 Krushevo was liberated and anounced for the first Republic on the balcans Republic of Krushevo. The greatest part of the masses showed their enthusiasm for freedom. On August 4, under request of Nikola Karev a meating was held of 60 outstanding citizens (20 out of each community) in which a temporary authority of 6 members whose president was Dinu Vangel was elected and a flag was raised as a simbol of freedom. Each member of the Executive Committee had his own part of work, forming more commissions, peoples police, etc. The Main Staff seat was located at the locality so called Gumenya. The function of the new authoriry was over the expectations.
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On August 6, the Main Staff sent the well-known proclamation (The Krushevo Manifesto) to the surrounding Moslem villages, which were informed about the aims of the uprising, stating that it was not directed against the peaceful Turkish population, but against the exploitation and the Sultan tiranny, and the Moslen population was asked not to join the enemy but to join the uprisers.
From Turkish side the liberation of Krushevo was considered as a bad chelinge which reduced the reputation of the Turkish army in Europe. In ten days however, a great Turkish army began the operations for the attack on Krushevo. Under the command of Bahtiyar-Pasha an army of fifteen thousand soldiers got an order to get the town back from the uprisers. On August 12, to the Main Staff of the uprisers a call was sent to surrender. The reply was: "We did not uprised to surrender but too fight".
The fight begun between 1200 uprisers and 15 000 to 18 000 Turkish army. The most bloody was the battle at "Sliva" (Plum) where 32 uprisers were killed and at Meckin Kamen (Bear's Stone) under the lidership of Pitu Guli. To the idea for freedom of Macedonia, writes one his contemprorary: Pitu was ready to give everything: there is no freedom, there is death.... Pitu was killed together with 45 fighters and become a legend and an example how one should defend freedom.
The army took over Krushevo and punished it violently. The business district and the bigger part especially the part with Vlachs were bombarded and ruined as well as a well-known church of St. Nikola was also ruined.
The liberation of Krushevo by the uprisers, resulted in transmission of its name almost all over the world for a moment. This unknown town immediately became the most-known Macedonian settlement in Europe.
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